Practice Exercises for Logic and Conditionals#

Solve each of the practice exercises below. Each problem includes three CodeSkulptor links: one for a template that you should use as a starting point for your solution, one to our solution to the exercise, and one to a tool that automatically checks your solution.

  1. Write a Python function is_even that takes as input the parameter number (an integer) and returns True if number is even and False if number is odd. Hint: Apply the remainder operator to n (i.e., number % 2) and compare to zero. Even templateEven solutionEven (Checker)

    def is_even(number):
    	return number % 2 == 0
    def test(number):
    	"""Tests the is_even function."""
    	if is_even(number):
    		print(number, "is even.")
    		print(number, "is odd.")
  2. Write a Python function is_cool that takes as input the string name and returns True if name is either "Joe", "John" or "Stephen" and returns False otherwise. (Let’s see if Scott manages to catch this. ☺ ) Cool templateCool solutionCool (Checker)

    def is_cool(name):
    	return name != 'Scott'
    def test(name):
    	"""Tests the is_cool function."""
    	if is_cool(name):
    		print(name, "is cool.")
    		print(name, "is not cool.")
  3. Write a Python function is_lunchtime that takes as input the parameters hour (an integer in the range $[1, 12]$) and is_am (a Boolean “flag” that represents whether the hour is before noon). The function should return True when the input corresponds to 11am or 12pm (noon) and False otherwise. If the problem specification is unclear, look at the test cases in the provided template. Our solution does not use conditional statements. Lunchtime templateLunchtime solutionLunchtime (Checker)

    def is_lunchtime(hour, is_am):
    	return (hour == 11 and is_am) or (hour == 12 and not is_am)
    def test(hour, is_am):
    	"""Tests the is_lunchtime function."""
    	print(hour, end=' ')
    	if is_am:
    		print("AM", end=' ')
    		print("PM", end=' ')
    	if is_lunchtime(hour, is_am):
    		print("is lunchtime.")
    		print("is not lunchtime.")
    test(11, True)
    test(12, True)
    test(11, False)
    test(12, False)
    test(10, False)
  4. Write a Python function is_leap_year that take as input the parameter year and returns True if year (an integer) is a leap year according to the Gregorian calendar and False otherwise. The Wikipedia entry for leap years contains a simple algorithmic rule for determining whether a year is a leap year. Your main task will be to translate this rule into Python. Leap year templateLeap year solutionLeap year (Checker)

  5. Write a Python function interval_intersect that takes parameters a, b, c, and d and returns True if the intervals $[a, b]$ and $[c, d]$ intersect and False otherwise. While this test may seem tricky, the solution is actually very simple and consists of one line of Python code. (You may assume that $ a \leq b $ and $c \leq d$.) Interval intersect templateInterval intersect solutionInterval intersect (Checker)

  6. Write a Python function name_and_age that take as input the parameters name (a string) and age (a number) and returns a string of the form "% is % years old." where the percents are the string forms of name and age. The function should include an error check for the case when age is less than zero. In this case, the function should return the string "Error: Invalid age". Name and age templateName and age solutionName and age (Checker)

  7. Write a Python function print_digits that takes an integer number in the range $[0,100)$ and prints the message "The tens digit is %, and the ones digit is %." where the percents should be replaced with the appropriate values. The function should include an error check for the case when number is negative or greater than or equal to $100$. In those cases, the function should instead print "Error: Input is not a two-digit number.". Print digits templatePrint digits solutionPrint digits (Checker)

  8. Write a Python function name_lookup that takes a string first_name that corresponds to one of ("Joe", "Scott", "John" or "Stephen") and then returns their corresponding last name ("Warren", "Rixner", "Greiner" or "Wong"). If first_name doesn’t match any of those strings, return the string "Error: Not an instructor". Name lookup templateName lookup solutionName lookup (Checker)

  9. Pig Latin is a language game that involves altering words via a simple set of rules. Write a Python function pig_latin that takes a string word and applies the following rules to generate a new word in Pig Latin. If the first letter in word is a consonant, append the consonant plus "ay" to the end of the remainder of the word. For example, pig_latin("pig") would return "igpay". If the first letter in word is a vowel, append "way" to the end of the word. For example, pig_latin("owl") returns "owlway". You can assume that word is in lower case. The provided template includes code to extract the first letter and the rest of word in Python. Note that, in full Pig Latin, the leading consonant cluster is moved to the end of the word. However, we don’t know enough Python to implement full Pig Latin just yet. Pig Latin templatePig Latin solutionPig Latin (Checker)

    # Pig Latin formula
    def pig_latin(word):
    	"""Returns the (simplified) Pig Latin version of the word."""
    	first_letter = word[0]
    	rest_of_word = word[1:]
    	# Student should complete function on the next lines.
    	fl = first_letter
    	if fl == 'a' or fl == 'e' or fl == 'i' or fl == 'o':
    		return f'{word}way' 
    		return f'{rest_of_word}{fl}ay' 
    def test(word):
    	"""Tests the pig_latin function."""
  10. Challenge: Given numbers $a$, $b$, and $c$, the quadratic equation $a x^2 + b x + c = 0$ can have zero, one or two real solutions (i.e; values for $x$ that satisfy the equation). The quadratic formula$ x = \frac{-b \pm \sqrt{b^2 - 4 a c}}{2 a}$can be used to compute these solutions. The expression $b^2 - 4 a c$ is the discriminant associated with the equation. If the discriminant is positive, the equation has two solutions. If the discriminant is zero, the equation has one solution. Finally, if the discriminant is negative, the equation has no solutions. Write a Python function smaller_root that takes an input the numbers a, b and c and returns the smaller solution to this equation if one exists. If the equation has no real solution, print the message "Error: No real solutions" and simply return. Note that, in this case, the function will actually return the special Python value None. Quadratic root templateQuadratic root solutionQuadratic root (Checker)

    def smaller_root(a, b, c):
    	discriminant = b**2 - 4*a*c
    	if discriminant < 0:
    		print('Error: No real solutions')
    		return None	
    		return (-b - discriminant**.5) / (2*a)
    def test(a, b, c):
        """Tests the smaller_root function."""
        print("The smaller root of " + str(a) + "x^2 + " + str(b) + "x + " + str(c) + " is:")
        print( str(smaller_root(a, b, c)) )
    test(1, 2, 3)
    test(2, 0, -10)
    test(6, -3, 5)